Walking Aids devices In Physiotherapy

Walking Aids In Physiotherapy:

Walking aids are devices which help functional independence of patients Ambulatory aids (eg, canes, crutches, walkers) are used to provide an extension of the upper extremities to help transmit body weight and provide support for the patient.

Uses of Ambulatory Aids:

These devices are mostly prescribed for below mentioned cases:
• Pain • Muscle weakness • Problem in balancing • Fractures • Joint diseases • Injured or inflamed limb • Lack of proprioception

Ambulatory Aids
Walking Aids

Types of Ambulatory Aids:

Mobility aids useful for muscle skeletal and neuromuscular problems). These mobility aids reduce the weight-bearing from the lower limb.

  • Crutches 
  • Canes 
  • Walkers 
  • Wheelchairs 
  • Braces and splints (orthosis) 
  • Prosthesis


At present three types of crutches are available: 

  1. Axillary crutch 
  2. Elbow crutch 
  3. Gutter crutch.

Axillary Crutch:

It gives more than 80 percent of stability. So that it can be recommended for the patient having marked instability in walking. 

Elbow Crutch:

It gives less stability than the axillary crutch. It renders 60 percent of stability to the patient using it. So, elbow crutches recommended for the patient having the minimal in stability in walking.

Gutter Crutch:

The length of the crutch and handpiece position can be adjustable.


a. Ataxia

b. Decreased weight bearing in limbs


Canes are not normally recommended for the non-weight-bearing and partial weight-bearing cases. It may create the compressive force in the stance hip. 1. Standard canes 

2. Standard adjustable canes 

3. Standard adjustable offset canes 

4. Tripod canes 

5. Quadruped canes.

Standard Canes

• It is made-up of aluminium, wood and plastic. 

Standard Adjustable Canes

• It is also made-up of aluminium and may be having the plastic covering. • It is having the height adjustable press clips. 

Adjustable Aluminium Offset Canes 

• Upper half of the cane is offset anteriorly so that the LOG falls on the cane and it gives more stability. It may be available in the standard and standard adjustable canes. • It too has the adjustable screws or press clips.

Quadruped and Tripod Canes 

• It has the 4 or 3 leg with the rubber tip and it gives the broader base.• Sometime the upper portion of the cane is offset anteriorly. • It gives more stability than any other varieties. • This is more useful for the neurological cases like hemiplegia and other elderly patients who had the injury of the lower limb. 


  1. Painful conditions of knees and hip
  2. Hemiparisis
  3. old age


Rigid Walker:

 The patient has to lift and place it front and walk. It is difficult to carry easily in and out of the house.

Foldable Walker:

It has all the features of rigid walker except the folding nature. It is easily foldable and kept in a store place.

Gutter Walker:

It is more helpful for the patient who has the problem over the wrist (RA, wrist bone fracture, wrist or hand injuries.


  • Hemiplegia
  • Ataxia
  • Paraplegia
  • cerebral palsy

Wheel Chair:

This is one of the variety of the mobility aids. The patient who has both lower limbs nonfunctioning or partial functioning has to be recommended for the wheelchair.

Rigid Wheel chair:

The rigid wheelchairs are having the solid frame and also it is lighter. It is mainly used for the sports. It is difficult to carry while traveling.

Foldable wheel Chair:

Foldable wheelchair contains foldable frames and it is very much heavier. It occupies less space, so it is very much easy to carry while traveling also.

One arm driven wheelchairs:

These are used for the patient those who are not able to use their one side upper limb mainly in hemiplegia

Powered wheelchairs:

These are the sophisticated one and are more used in the developed countries like the United States, United Kingdom, and European countries. It can be steered, propelled, adjust the seat hand rest, back rest by the power control.


Paralysis and Decreased weight bearing in limbs

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