Anti asthmatic Drugs, Anti-Diabetic

Anti-diabetic Drugs:

Definition:

Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by altering the glucose level in blood. With the exceptions of insulin ,exenatide and pramlintide, all are administered orally and are thus also called oral hypoglycemic agents.

anti asthmatic drugs

Types of Anti-diabetic drugs:

1.Sulfonylureas:
Glimepiride
Glipizide
Glyburide

2.Biguanides:
Metformin

3.Thiazolidinediones:
Pioglitazone
Actos generic

4.Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitor:
Acarbose

5.Meglitinides:
Nateglinide

Combination of sulfonylureas plus metformin- known by generic names of two drugs.

Classification of Anti-diabetic drugs:


Sulfonylureas:
1st generation ;   Tolbutamide
2nd generation;   Glibenclamide , Glipizide

Meglitinide Analogues:
Repaglinide
Nateglinide


Glucagon-like peptide – [GLP-1] receptor agonists:
Exenatide
Liraglutide

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors:
Sitagliptin
Vildagliptin

Mechanism of Action:


Inhibits potassium efflux [blocks ATP- regulated K channels] causing depolarization and insulin release from pancreatic Beta-cell.

Medication:

Metformin, It works by lowering glucose production in the liver and improving your body’s sensitivity to insulin so that your body uses insulin more effectively. If not at target, stage 1: Start with lifestyle and metformin. If A1C ≥7.5% (10) or ≥9% (9,10), consider short-term combination therapy or insulin, respectively.

Anti-Asthmatics:

The drugs which are used to treat bronchial asthma are called anti-asthmatic drugs.

Types of Asthma:

Acute Asthma:
Characterized by episodes of dyspnea along with expiratory wheezing.
Chronic Asthma:
There is continous wheezing & breathlessness on exertion and recurrent respiratory infection.

Classification of anti asthmatic drugs:

Bronchodilators:
Sympathomimetics
Methylxanthines
Anticholinergics


Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist:
Zafirlukast
Montelukast
Zileuton

Anti-Diabetic Drugs

Mast cell Stabilizer:
Sodium cromoglycate
Ketotifen
Glucocorticoids


Inhaled glucocorticoids:
Beclomethasone
Budesonide
Fluticasone
Ciclesonide


Systemic glucocorticoids:
Hydrocortisone
Prednisolone
Methylprednisolone


Anti-Ige:
Omalizumab

Click below to see detailed information on:

Anti emetic Drugs

Anti Ulcer Drugs

Mechanism of Action:

  • Sympathomimetics act by stimulating beta2-receptors in bronchial smooth muscle and mast cells and the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate increases and as a result bronchodilatation occurs which inhibits the release of histamine, SRS-A from mast cells and promote muco-ciliary clearance there is inhibition of phospholipase A2.
  • Prostaglandins & Leukotrienes level decreases.
  • Number of inflammatory cells in airways decreases.
  • Histamine release decreases.
  • Capillary permeability & mucosal edema decreases.
  • Inhibition of antigen antibody.
  • Up-regulate beta-2 receptors.

Pharmacokinetics of anti asthmatic drugs:

Methylxanthines: These are well absorbed after oral & parental administration, food delays rate of absorption of theophyline, distributed throughout the body can cross blood brain barrier metabolized through liver and excreted through urine.
Theophyline: It is poorly soluble in water not suitable for injection and available for oral administration.
Aminophyline: It is water soluble but so irritant can be given orally or slowly intravenously.
Etophyline: It is water soluble can be administered orally via intramuscular or intravenous pathway.

Therapeutic uses:

  • Bronchial asthma
  • COPD
  • reduce Apnea episodes
  • cause Broncho-dilation
  • cause Cardiac stimulation
  • Episodic Asthmatic attacks
  • Nocturnal awakenings

Adverse effects:

These drugs have narrow margin of safety because it may cause tachycardia, palpitation, hypotension and sometimes sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmia,

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Gastritis
  • Peptic ulcer
  • Restlessness
  • Insomnia
  • Headache
  • Tremors
  • Convulsions
  • Diuresis
  • Tachycardia
  • Palpitation
  • Arrhythmia

Anti asthmatic Drugs interaction:

The drug is more likely to interact with anti-anginals, anti-diabetics, anti-hypertensives, anti-epileptics anticoagulants and oral contraceptives.

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