Antiemetic Drugs, Mechanism, Indications, Adverse effect

Antiemetic Drugs:

These are the types of chemicals that help ease the symptoms of nausea and vomiting antiemetic drugs are used to block specific neurotransmitters in the body, used in various therapeutic cases like morning sickness and preventing side effects of opiod analgesics and chemotherapeutic agents.

Antiemetic drugs

Classification of Antiemetic Drugs:

ANTI-CHOLINERGICS:
  • Hyoscine
  • Dicyclomine
  • used in morning sickness.

H1 ANTIHISTAMINICS:

  • Promethazine
  • Diphenhydramine
  • Cyclizine
  • Meclozine
  • Cinnarizine
  • Used in vestibular morning sickness.
NEUROLEPTICS:
  • Chlorpromazine
  • Prochlorperazine
  • Haloperidol
  • PROKINETIC DRUGS:
  • Metoclopramide
  • Domperidone
  • Cisapride
  • Cisapride
  • Used in cytotoxic drug induced emesis.
5HT3-ANTAGONIST:
  • Ondansetron
  • Granisetron
  • Dolasetron
ADJUVENT ANTIEMETICS:
  • Corticosteroids
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Cannabinoids
  • Used in cytotoxic drug induced emesis.

Mechanism of Action:

  • Antiemetic drugs from a group of drugs called serotonin antagonists. These drugs act by inhibiting serotonin (5H-T,type 3)receptors during chemotherapy there might be the secretion 5H-T released from injury to GI tract which centrally stimulates vomiting.
  • ANTI-HISTAMINES for vestibular disorders
  • ANTI-CHOLINERGIC for vestibular & GI tract disorders.
  • DOPAMINE ANTAGONIST for GI disorders.
  • SELECTIVE SEROTONIN to prevent chemotherapy induced nausea.

Therapeutic Uses:

  • Nausea 
  • Vomiting
  • Vestibular disorders
  • Migraine
  • Liver disease
  • Viral gastro enteritis
  • Hyper emasis gravidarum
  • Morning sickness
  • Radiation sickness
  • Diabetic gastroparesis

Adverse Effects:

  • Sedation
  • Dystonia
  • Sedation
  • Paranoia
  • Dysphoria
  • Hypotension
  • Drug abuse

Drug Interaction:

  • CNS active drugs such as barbiturates, narcotics and analgesic agents may cause additive CNS depression.
  • Phenothiazines should not be given within 1 month of worming with an organophosphate agent as the effect of either drug might be potentiated.

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