Antiulcer Drugs | Physiomentor

ANTIULCER DRUGS:

Antiulcer drugs or medications which block the pathways of acids production or secretion, decreasing gastric acidity, improving symptoms and aids in healing of acid peptic diseases.

DEFINITION:

Antiulcers are a class of drugs exclusive of antibacterial agents and used to treat ulcers in stomach and upper part of small intestine.

Classification of Antiulcer Drugs:

Antihistamines:
  • Cimetidine
  • Famotidine
  • Roxatidine
  • Ranitidine
  • Nizatidine
Proton Pump inhibitors:
  • Omeprazole
  • Pantoprazole
  • Esmoprazole
  • Lansoprazole
  • Rabeprazole
Anticholenergics:
  • Pirenzepine
  • Oxyphenonium
  • Propantheline
Prostaglandin Analogue:
  • Misoprostol
Acid Neutralizing Agents (Antacids):
  • Systemic: Sodium bicarbonate
  • Non-systemic: Calcium carbonate
Anti H.Pylori Drugs:
  • Amoxicillin
  • Tetracycline
  • Clarithromycin
  • Tinidazole
  • Metronidazole
Ulcer Protectives:
  • Sucralfate
  • Colloidal bismuth sub citrate

Pharmacokinetics:


Bioavailability: Approximately 50% (instability at acidic pH).

Metabolism: Antiulcers are metabolized by liver.

Excretion: Metabolites are excreted through renal system.

Duration of action: 24 hours

Mechanism of Action:

  • Block last step in secretion of gastric acid by combining with hydrogen,potassium and adenosine triphosphate in parietal cells of stomach.
  • React covalently with SH groups of H+K+ATPASE enzyme and inactivate it irreversibly.
  • Acid secretion resumes only when new H+K+ATPASE molecules are synthesized.

Therapeutic Uses of Antiulcer Drugs:

  • Promote healing of duodenal 
  • Gastric ulcers
  • Peptic Ulcers
  • Stress ulcer
  • GERD
  • Aspiration Pneumonia
  • Zollinger Ellison Syndrome
  • Bleeding peptic ulcer

Adverse effects of Antiulcers:

  • Nausea                                       
  • Constipation                             
  • Headache                                   
  • Diarrhea                                      
  • Depression                                
  • Joint Pain                                    
  • Cramping                                    
  • Hives                                            
  • Leucopenia
  • Rashes
  • Hepatic Dysfunction
  • Hepatic Dysfunction
  • Erectile Dysfunction 
  • Abdominal pain

Drug Interaction:

Antiulcer drugs inhibits oxidation of certain drugs, diazepam, phenytoin and warfarin.

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