Bone Fracture | Types of Fractures, Treatment

Types of Bone Fracture:

Bone fracture are of different types each fracture varies from other one depending upon the cause of fracture, place of fracture and the bone involved.

Bankart’s Fracture: 

(Arthur Sydney Blundell Bankart)

A Bankart lesion is an injury of the anterior (inferior) glenoid labrum of the shoulder due to anterior shoulder dislocation.

MOI- external rotation and abduction of shoulder.

Barton’s Fracture:

(John Rhea Barton)

  • A Barton’s fracture is an intra articular fracture of the distal radius with dislocation of radicarpal joint.
  • MOI- fall on the outstretched hand.

Bennet’s Fracture:

(Edward Hallaran Bennett)

  • Bennett Fracture is at the base of the first metacarpal bone which extends into the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint.

Bosworth Fracture:

(David M. Bosworth)

  • The bosworth fracture is a rare fracture of the distal fibula with an associated fixed posterior dislocation of the proximal fibular fragment which becomes trapped behind the posterior tibial tubercle.
  • MOI- severe external rotation of the foot.

Boxer’s Fracture:

  • Boxer’s fractures are minimally comminuted, transverse fractures of the 5th metacarpal and are the most common type of metacarpal fracture.
  • MOI-punching solid object.

Bumpers Fracture:

  • MOI- forced valgus of knee when struck from side by car bumper.            

Chance Bone Fracture:

(George Quentin Chance)

  • A chance fracture is a flexion injury of the spine which consists of a compression injury to the anterior portion of the vertebral body and a transverse fracture through the posterior elements of the vertebra and the posterior portion of the vertebral body.
  • It is caused by violent forward flexion, causing distraction injury to the posterior elements.

Chauffeur’s Fracture:

(Backfire fracture or Hutchinson fracture)

  • Chauffeur’s fracture is a type of fracture of the forearm, specifically the radial styloid process.
  • The injury is typically caused by the compression of the the scaphoid bone of the hand against the styloid process of the distal radius.
  • MOI- forced ulnar deviation of the wrist causing avulsion of the radila styloid.

Chopart’s Fracture:

(Francois Chopart)

  • Chopart’s Fracture-dislocation is a dislocation of the mid tarsal (talo-navicular and calcaneocuboid) joints of the foot, often with associated fractures of the calcaneus, cuboid and navicular.
  • Chopart’s Fracture-dislocation is usually caused by the falls from height, traffic collisions and twisting injuries to the foot as seen in basketball players.

Clay Shovellers Fracture:

  • In Bone fracture Clay-shoveler’s fracture is a stable fracture through the spinous process of a vertebra occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebra, classically at C6 OR C7.
  • MOI- forced hyperflexion of neck.

Smith’s Fracture:

(Robert William Smith)

  • Fracture of distal radius in which the distal fracture fragment is displaced ventrally.
  • MOI: Fall on outstretched hand with wrist in flexed position.                             

Shepherd’s Bone Fracture:

(Francis J. Shephard)

  • Fracture of the lateral tubercle of the posterior process of the talus.

Stieda Bone Fracture:

(Alfred Stieda)

  • Avulsion fracture of the medial femoral condyle at the origin of the medial collateral ligament.

Straddle Bone Fracture:

  • Bilateral fractures of the superior and inferior pubic rami.

Tillaux Chaupat Fracture:

(Paul Jules Tillaux)

  • Tillaux-Chaput avulsion fracture is a salter-Harris 3 fracture through the anterolateral aspect of the distal tibial epiphysis.
  • It is opposite end to Wagstaffe-Le Fort avulsion fracture.
  • MOI- Forced lateral rotation of foot.

Toddlers Bone Fracture:

  • These are bone fractures of the distal (lower) part of shin bone (tibia) in toddlers (aged 9 months- 3 years) and other young children (less than 8 years)
  • MOI- Low energy trauma, often rotational.

Nightstick Bone Fracture:

  • Minimally displaced oblique fracture of ulna without associated fracture of radius.

Monteggia Fracture:

(Glovanni Battista)

  • The Monteggia fracture is a fracture of proximal third of ulna with dislocation of the head of radius.
  • MOI: Blow to forearm.

Moore’s Bone Fracture

(Edward Mott Moore)

  • Distal radius fracture with ulnar dislocation and entrapment of styloid process under annular ligament.

March Bone Fracture

(Fatigue fracture or stress fracture of metatarsal bone) It is the fracture of distal one third of the metatarsals ocurring because of recurrent stress.March fractures most commonly occur in the second and third metatarsal bones of the foot.MOI: Heavy or unaccustomed exercise.

Pipkin Fracture Dislocation

  • Posterior dislocation of hip with avulsion fracture of fragment of femoral head by the ligamentum teres.
  • MOI: Impact to the knee with hip flexed (dashboard injury)

Pott’s Fracture:

(Percival Pott)

  • Bi-malleolar fracture of the ankle
  • MOI: Eversion of ankle

Rolando Fracture:

(Silvio Rolando)

  • The Rolando fracture is a comminuted intra-articular fracture through the base of the first metacarpal bone.

Runner’s Bone Fracture:

  • Stress fracture of the distal fibula 3-8cm above lateral malleolus.
  • MOI: repeated axial stress on fibula.  

Salter Harris Fracture:

(Robert Bruce Salter, W. Robert Harris)

  • A Salter-Harris fracture is a fracture that involves the epiphyseal plate or growth plate of a bone. 

Segond Fracture:

(Paul Segond)

  • In Bone fracture Segond Fracture is a type of avulsion fracture (soft tissue structures tearing off bits of their bony attachment) of the lateral tibial condyle of the knee, immediately beyond the surface which articulates with femur.
  • MOI: Internal rotation of the knee.

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