Cancer, symptoms, causes and prevention

What is cancer?

The human body is made up of trillions of cells. In cancer, some of the cells from the human body start multiplying to an uncontrolled level. These abnormal and controlled cells spread to other body parts causing cancerous cells there. The normal body is not functioning properly old cells do not die, instead they multiply and form tumors. It might be due to environmental triggers or genetic predisposition.

Cancer, symptoms, causes, prevention

Stages of Cancer

Cancer consists of 4 stages. The fourth stage is severe of all. Treatment depends upon the stage at which it is diagnosed. In stage zero there is no cancer, but abnormal cells are present which might develop the disease. The first stage is known as early-stage cancer. Abnormal cells are present in a single body part. In stage 2 and stage 3 abnormal cells spread to nearby tissues and lymph nodes. At the fourth stage cells spread to different body parts, this is the last stage and is called the metastatic stage.

Stage 0No cancer is diagnosed, but cells might develop cancer.
Stage 1Only one area is involved in cancer.
Stage 2Cancer spreads in nearby tissues and lymph nodes.
Stage 3Cancer spreads in nearby tissues and other body parts.
Stage 4Cancer spreads in the whole body, metastatic stage.

Signs and Symptoms

Let’s have a look at the signs and symptoms. The early-stage signs are not severe, including hoarseness, fever, fatigue. Early-stage can be treated. If a person is having some symptoms that prolong there might be an underlying cause.

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Breast changes
  • Chronic cough
  • Hormonal changes
  • Bloating and heartburn
  • Bladder changes
  • Frequent urination
  • Swallowing problems
  • Fatigue and weightloss
Causes and Genesis

Cancer is commonly caused due to genetic predisposition or environmental triggers. Here are some of the causes:

  • Environmental factors
  • Tobacco and smoking
  • Sun radiations
  • Virus and parasites
  • Alcohol and diet
  • Mutations
  • Syndromes

Types of Cancer

TypesSymptomsCausesRisk factorsPrevention
LungsChest pain
Blood in cough
Radiation therapy
Avoid smoking
Avoid carcinogen
SkinBumps, scars
skin bleeding
UV radiation
Toxic chemicals
Fair skin
Sun exposure
Avoid sun rays
Wear sunscreens
Lumps, pigmentation
Mutated genes
Radiation exposure
Inherited genes
Drinking alcohol
Breast screening
Alcohol moderation
Bladder Frequent urination
Painful urination
Parasitic infection
Chemical exposure
Bladder inflammation
Don’t smoke
Avoid chemicals
Brain tumorNausea, vomiting
Seizures, incoordination
Genetic mutations
Gliomas, radiation
Radiation exposure
Family history
Avoid radiations
Eat healthy
Treatment and Prevention

Though it is caused due to genetic mutations or sometimes environmental factors including diet, unhealthy food, alcohol, tobacco, family history, ultraviolet radiations, sun rays, obesity we need to be careful about these factors. We need to get vaccinated, maintain a healthy weight, eat healthy food, protecting ourselves from radiation and chemicals. Treatment depends upon the stage of the disease. Early-stage can be treated.

  • Surgery might remove tumor or cancerous lumps
  • Chemotherapy uses different medications that kills harmful cells
  • Radiaton therapies include focused beam of radiations
  • Stem cell transplant (bone marrow transplant)
  • Immunotherapy that uses antibodies to destroy cancerious cells
  • Drug therapy that interfer with cell growth

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