What is cancer?
The human body is made up of trillions of cells. In cancer, some of the cells from the human body start multiplying to an uncontrolled level. These abnormal and controlled cells spread to other body parts causing cancerous cells there. The normal body is not functioning properly old cells do not die, instead they multiply and form tumors. It might be due to environmental triggers or genetic predisposition.
Stages of Cancer
Cancer consists of 4 stages. The fourth stage is severe of all. Treatment depends upon the stage at which it is diagnosed. In stage zero there is no cancer, but abnormal cells are present which might develop the disease. The first stage is known as early-stage cancer. Abnormal cells are present in a single body part. In stage 2 and stage 3 abnormal cells spread to nearby tissues and lymph nodes. At the fourth stage cells spread to different body parts, this is the last stage and is called the metastatic stage.
|Stage 0||No cancer is diagnosed, but cells might develop cancer.|
|Stage 1||Only one area is involved in cancer.|
|Stage 2||Cancer spreads in nearby tissues and lymph nodes.|
|Stage 3||Cancer spreads in nearby tissues and other body parts.|
|Stage 4||Cancer spreads in the whole body, metastatic stage.|
Signs and Symptoms
Let’s have a look at the signs and symptoms. The early-stage signs are not severe, including hoarseness, fever, fatigue. Early-stage can be treated. If a person is having some symptoms that prolong there might be an underlying cause.
- Nausea and vomiting
- Abdominal pain
- Loss of appetite
- Breast changes
- Chronic cough
- Hormonal changes
- Bloating and heartburn
- Bladder changes
- Frequent urination
- Swallowing problems
- Fatigue and weightloss
Causes and Genesis
Cancer is commonly caused due to genetic predisposition or environmental triggers. Here are some of the causes:
- Environmental factors
- Tobacco and smoking
- Sun radiations
- Virus and parasites
- Alcohol and diet
Types of Cancer
Blood in cough
|Avoid sun rays|
|Brain tumor||Nausea, vomiting|
Treatment and Prevention
Though it is caused due to genetic mutations or sometimes environmental factors including diet, unhealthy food, alcohol, tobacco, family history, ultraviolet radiations, sun rays, obesity we need to be careful about these factors. We need to get vaccinated, maintain a healthy weight, eat healthy food, protecting ourselves from radiation and chemicals. Treatment depends upon the stage of the disease. Early-stage can be treated.
- Surgery might remove tumor or cancerous lumps
- Chemotherapy uses different medications that kills harmful cells
- Radiaton therapies include focused beam of radiations
- Stem cell transplant (bone marrow transplant)
- Immunotherapy that uses antibodies to destroy cancerious cells
- Drug therapy that interfer with cell growth