Fracture | Types and radiology of fracture


Fracture is defined as break in a bone. If skin also gets punctured then it is known as compound fracture or open fracture. Types of fractures are discussed below:

  • Hangman’s Fx.
  • Colle’s Fx.
  • Greenstick Fx.
  • Cotton’s Fx.
  • Dupuytren Fx.
  • Essex-Lopresti Fx.
  • Hill-Sachs Fx.
  • Galeazzi Fx.
  • Gosselin Fx.
  • Duverney Fx.
  • Holstein-Lewis Fx.
  • Holdsworth Fx.
  • Hume Fx.
  • Jefferson Fx.
  • Jones Fx.
  • Le fort Fx.
  • Lisfranc Fx.
  • Maisonneuve Fx.
  • Malgaigne’s Fx.

1.Hangman’s fracture:

  • Fracture of both pedicles.
  • A hangman’s fracture is a Fracture. of both pedicles or pars inter-articularis of the axis vertebra (C2)
  • MOI: Distraction and extension of neck.

2.Colle’s fracture:

(Abraham Colle’s)

  • Colle’s Fx. is a Fx. of distal radius in the forearm with dorsal (posterior) and radial displacement of the wrist and hand.
  • The Fx. is sometimes referred to as a “dinner fork” or “bayonet” deformity due to shape of resultant forearm.
  •  MOI: Fall on outstretched hand.

3.Green fracture:

  • A Fx. of the bone, occurring typically in children, in which one side of the bone is broken and the other only bent.
  • MOI- bending forces after fall.

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4.Cotton’s fracture:

(Frederick J.cotton)

  • A Tri-malleolar Fx. is a Fx. of the ankle that involves the lateral malleolus ,the medial malleolus, and the distal posterior aspect of the tibia , which can be termed posterior malleolus.
  • The trauma is sometimes accompanied by ligament damage and dislocation.

5.Dupuytren fracture:

(Guillaume Dupuytren)

  • Dupuytren Fx. is a type of bi-malleolar ankle Fx.
  • The term is commonly used to refer to a Fx. of the distal portion of the fibula above the lateral malleolus, with an associated tear of tibiofibular ligaments and the deltoid ligament.
  • There is lateral displacement of talus and might be the medial malleolus Fx. as well.

6.Essex-Lopresti :

(Peter essex-lopresti)

  • The Essex-Lopresti Fx. is a Fx. of radial head with dislocation of distal radio-ulnar joint with disruption of the interosseous membrane.
  • MOI- Fall from height.

7.Hill-Sachs :

  • It results from forceful impaction of the humeral head against the anteroinferior glenoid rim when the shoulder is dislocated anteriorly.

8.Galeazzi Fracture:

(Ricardo Galeazzi)

  • A Fx. of radius with dislocation of distal radioulnar joint
  • It involves an isolated Fx. of the junction of third and middle third of radius with associated subluxation or dislocation of distal radio-ulnar joint ;the injury disrupt forearm axis joint.
  • MOI: Blow to forearm.

9.Gosselin Fracture:

(Leon Athanese Gosselin)

  • The Gosselin Fx. is V-shaped Fx. of distal tibia which extends into the ankle joint and fractures the tibial plafond into anterior and posterior fragments.

10.Duverney Fracture:

(Joseph Guichard Duverney)

  • Duverney fractures are isolated pelvic fractures involving only iliac wing.
  • They are caused by direct trauma to the iliac wing , and are generally stable fractures as they do not disrupt the weight bearing pelvic ring.
  • MOI- direct trauma.

11. Holstein-Lewis Fracture:

(Arthur Holstein and Gwylim Lewis)

  • A Holstein-Lewis Fx. is a Fx. of distal third of humerus resulting in entrapment of the radial nerve.

12. Holdsworth :

(Sir Frank Wild Holdsworth)

  • An unstable Fx. dislocation of thoraco-lumbar junction of spine.

13. Hume fracture:

(A.C. Hume)

  • The Hume Fx. is an injury of the elbow comprising a Fx. of the olecranon with an associated anterior dislocation of radial head which occurs in children.

14. Jefferson :

(Sir Geoffrey Jefferson)

  • A Jefferson Fx. is a bone Fx. of anterior and posterior arches of the C1 vertebra, though it may also appear as a three- or two-part Fx.
  • The Fx. may result from an axial load on back of head or hyperextension of the neck.

15. Jones fracture:

  • A jones Fx. is a Fx. in meta-diaphyseal junction of fifth metatarsal of the foot.
  • The proximal end of the metatarsal, where the jones Fx. occurs in the near the midportion of the foot, on the fifth ray (of which the fifth toe belongs).
  • MOI: Inversion of ankle.

16. Le fort fracture:

(Rene Le Fort)

  • A Le Fort Fx. of skull is a classic fracture of midface and surrounding structures in either a horizontal, pyramidal or transverse direction.

Le fort 1 (horizontal)

Le-fort 2 (pyramidal)

Le-fort 3 (transvers)

MOI: direct trauma to face

Click for detailed information on types, physiology and anatomy of bone fractures.

17. Le fort’s fracture of ankle:

(Leon Clement Le Fort)

  • Le Fort’s Fx. of ankle is a verticle Fx. of antero-medial part of the distal fibula with avulsion of the anterior tibiofibular ligament.
  • It t is opposite to a Tillaux-Chaput avulsion Fx.

8. Lisfranc :

(Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin)

  • The Lisfranc injury is an injury of foot in which one or more of the metatarsal bones are displaced from the tarsus.

19. Maisonneuve :

(Jules Germain Francois Maisonneuve)

  • The Maisonneuve Fx. is a spiral Fx. of the proximal third of fibula associated with a tear of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis and the interosseous membrane.
  • MOI: External rotation of ankle.

20. Malgaigne’s Fracture:

(Joseph-Francois Malgaigne)

  • A Malgaigne Fx. is a vertical pelvic Fx. with bilateral sacroiliac dislocation and Fx. of the pubic rami.
  • MOI: High energy impact to pelvis (front to back)

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