At this stage usually, we recommend lifestyle measures to try to prevent the onset of hypertension;

Lifestyle measures

  • Exercise
  • Managing body weight into a normal range
  • Eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables
  • Choosing low-fat dairy products.

Stage 3:  Systolic between 140 and 159 mm Hg or diastolic 90 and 99 mm Hg. Aim should be to reduce the (i) risk of heart disease and stroke.

Stage 4: Systolic 160 mm Hg or higher or diastolic 100 mm Hg or higher. 


The most common causes include;

  • Smoking
  • Obesity(being overweight)
  • Diabetes
  • Sedentary life style
  • Lack of physical activity
  • High salt or alcohol intake
  • Insufficient consumption of calcium, potassium or magnesium
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Stress
  • Aging
  • Chronic kidney disease

Symptoms for Hypertension

 Symptoms include;

  • Severe headache
  • Nosebleed
  • Fatigue or confusion
  • Vision problems
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Blood in the urine
  • Pounding in your chest, neck or ear


Life style adjustments are first line treatment are:

  • Regular physical exercise
  • Stress reduction
  • Diet
  • Medications
  • Managing body weight
  • DASH diet(Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)

Regular Physical Exercise:

Currently recommend that all people including those with hypertension should engage itself in at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic exercise every week or 75 minutes a week of high intensity exercise.

Stress Reduction:

 Avoiding or learning to manage stress can help a person control blood pressure.


  • Reducing salt intake
  • Moderating alcohol consumption
  • Eating less fat food
  • Eating more fruits and vegetables
  • Heart healthy diet usually prevent
  • It is important to avoid trans fats, hydrogenated vegetable oils, and animal fats, as well as large portion sizes
  • Some fats, such as those in oily fish and olive oil, have protective effects on the heart.
  • But people with hypertension should still include them in their total fat intake.

Medication for Hypertension:

People can use specific medication to treat hypertension.

Medication include;

  • Beta blockers and Alpha blockers
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Vasodilators
  • ACE inhibitors
  • Vasodilators
  • Angiotensin receptor blockers
  • Diuretics

The choice of medication depend on individual condition and underlying medical condition.

Managing Body Weight:

Excess body weight is also a cause of hypertension.

DASH Diet:

The U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recommended it  for people with high blood pressure. DASH stands for “Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension.”

DASH usually;

  • Lowers high blood pressure
  • Improves levels of fats in the blood
  • Reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease
  • But people with hypertension should still include them in their total fat intake.

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