Hypotension is a medical term used for the low blood pressure (less than 90/60). The blood pressure measure consist of the two readings, one is the higher called systolic pressure or the pressure in the arteries when heart beat and fills them with blood. And the other is diastolic pressure or the pressure in the arteries when heart rests between the beats. The optimal blood pressure is 120/90. Usually the low blood pressure without symptom does not need to be treated but the low B.P with symptom indicates the presence of underlying problem and needs to be treated. This can lead to dizziness or light headedness.
TYPES OF HYPOTENSION
Following are the types of hypotension:
Sudden drops in blood pressure commonly occur in someone who’s rising from a lying down or sitting position to standing. This type of fall in B.P is called as ”postural hypotension”. It is the failure of cardiovascular system to respond to the sudden changes. This leads to hypotension and fainting.
Another type of low blood pressure can occur when someone stands for a long period of time without rest. This is called mediated hypotension.
It is the condition when the body over reacts to certain conditions such as the sight of blood or extreme emotional conditions. This causes your blood pressure and heart rate to drop suddenly.
It is the drop in blood pressure that occurs immediately after eating. Older adults specially having Parkinson`s disease are mostly at risk of postprandial hypotension.
SYMPTOMS OF HYPOTENSION
Symptoms of low blood pressure are following:
1. Light headedness
5. Blurry vision
9. Loss of consiousness
10. Clammy skin
CAUSES OF HYPOTENSION
Blood pressure drops because of certain conditions. Some conditions are symptom free but in some persons blood pressure drops with noticeable symptoms. Certain conditions can cause prolonged hypotension, which is dangerous if not treated. these conditions include:
PREGNANCY, in this the blood demand increases for both mother and for growing fetus.
INJURY: The blood loss through injury drops the blood pressure.
IMPAIRED CIRCULATION: Due to impaired circulation because of heart attack and faulty heart valves, the blood pressure drops.
INFECTION of the blood stream may decrease the blood pressure.
ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCKS: Refers to severe allergic shock that can decrease the blood pressure.
|Systolic (top number)||Diastolic (bottom number)||Blood pressure category|
|90 or below||60 or below||hypotension|
|91 to 119||61 to 79||normal|
|between 120 and 129||and below 80||elevated|
|between 130 and 139||or between 80 and 89||stage 1 hypertension|
|140 or higher||or 90 or higher||stage 2 hypertension|
|higher than 180||higher than120||hypertensive crisis|
Measurement of B.P
Blood pressure is measured with the help of apparatus called sphygmomanometer. Firstly, a cuff is placed around your arm and inflated with a pump until the circulation is cut off. A small valve used to slowly deflates the cuff, and the doctor measuring blood pressure uses a stethoscope, placed on the brachial artery of arm, to listen for the sound of blood pulsing through the arteries. That rushing blood creates a sound reffered as the ”systolic blood pressure”; and when this sound fades, second sound indicates the the ”diastolic pressure”, B.P of your heart at resting state. The blood pressure less than 90/60 mmHg represents the Hypotension. While in hypertension there is increased blood pressure.
TREATMENT FOR HYPOTENSION
Hypotension needs some different approach. It may be caused by some other conditions such as thyroid problems, dehydration, bleeding, medication side effects. Doctor will treat that condition first. The other treatments for hypotension are following:
1.Drink alot of water
2. Eat diet having increased salt
3. Limit alcoholic beverages
4. Do regular exercise to increase blood circulation
5.Avoid heavy lifting
6. Avoid still standing for long duration
7.Elevate your head at night
8. Take great care while standing up from lying or siiting position. To help improve circulation, pump your feet a few times before standing up. Then proceed slowly. When getting out of bed, sit upright on the edge of the bed for few minute before standing.
9. Take corticosterone to increase blood volume.
The decrease blood pressure may cause
2. Heart attack
3. Brain damage
4. Injury from falls
6. Brain damage
7. Other organ damage
If you have low blood pressure, depends on its cause. If it’s caused by an untreated underlying condition, your symptom may increase and it may be dangerous. You can reduce your risk of serious complications by managing your low blood pressure. Consult your Physician for best management purpose. This ca Other preventions include :
1.Eating healthy diet containing plenty of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, fats.
2. Watch your portions to mantain healthy weight.
3. Do regular exercise
4. Quit smoking
Dr. Kashaf Iftikhar