Muscles of Ankle, Plantar-flexors and Dorsiflexors

Dorsiflexors- Muscles of Ankle

We will discuss muscles of ankle, plantar-flexors and dorsiflexors of ankle, their origin, insertion, action and nerve supply.


Tibialis anterior

Origin: Lateral tibial condyle and upper 2/3 of lateral surface of tibia, interosseous membrane. Insertion: Medial and inferior surface of medial cuneiform, base of first metatarsal. Nerve: Deep peroneal nerve (L4,5). Action: Dorsiflexes and inverts ankle.

muscles of ankle, plantarflexors and dorsiflexors

Extensor digitorum longus

Origin: Upper three quarter of medial surface of fibula, interosseous membrane, lateral tibial condyle. Insertion: Middle and distal phalanges of four lateral toes. Nerve: Deep peroneal nerve (L5, S1). Action: Extends lateral four toes, ankle dorsiflexor.

Extensor hallucis longus

Origin: Fibula (shaft, middle 1⁄2 of medial aspect), interosseous membrane. Insertion: Base of distal phalanx of greater toe. Nerve: Deep peroneal nerve (L5). Action: Extends great toe, ankle dorsiflexor.

Peroneus tertius

Origin: Distal third of medial surface of fibula, interosseous membrane, intermuscular septum. Insertion: Medial aspect of base of fifth metatarsal. Nerve: Deep peroneal nerve (L5, S1). Action: Everts and dorsiflexes ankle.

muscles of ankle, plantar-flexors and dorsiflexors

Plantar flexors- ankle muscles:


Gastrocnemius

Origin: Medial Head; posterior part of medial femoral condyle. Lateral Head; lateral surface of lateral femoral condyle. Insertion: Posterior surface of calcaneus. Nerve: Tibial nerve (S1, S2). Action: Plantar flexes ankle, flexes knee.

Soleus

Origin: Soleal line and middle third of medial border of tibia, posterior surface of head and upper quarter of fibula, fibrous arch between tibia and fibula. Insertion: Posterior surface of calcaneus. Nerve: Tibial nerve (S1, S2). Action: Plantar flexes ankle.

Peroneus Longus

Origin: Lateral tibial condyle, upper 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula, intermuscular septa. Insertion: Lateral side of base of first metatarsal, medial cuneiform. Nerve: Superficial peroneal nerve (L5, S1). Action: Everts and plantar flexes ankle.

Tibialis posterior

Origin: Tibia (lateral aspect of posterior surface, below soleal line, interosseous membrane, upper half of posterior surface of fibula, deep transverse fascia). Insertion: Tuberosity of navicular, medial cunei- form, sustentaculum tali, intermediate cuneiform, base of second to fourth metatarsals. Nerve: Tibial nerve (L4,5). Action: Plantar flexes and inverts ankle.

Flexor hallucis brevis

Origin: Medial side of plantar surface of cuboid, lateral cuneiform. Insertion: Medial and lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of great toe. Nerve: Medial plantar nerve (S1, S2). Action: Flexes metatarsophalangeal joint of great toe.

Flexor digitorum longus

Origin: Medial part of posterior surface of tibia, deep transverse fascia. Insertion: Plantar aspect of base of distal phalanges of second to fifth toes. Nerve: Tibial nerve (L5–S2). Action: Flexes lateral four toes, plantar flexes ankle.

Peroneus brevis

Origin: Lower 2/3 of lateral surface at fibula, intermuscular septa. Insertion: Lateral side of base of fifth metatarsal. Nerve: Superficial peroneal nerve (L5, S1). Action: Everts and plantar flexes ankle.

Plantaris

Origin: Lateral supra condylar ridge, oblique popliteal ligament. Insertion: Tendo-calcaneus. Nerve: Tibial nerve (S1, S2). Action: Plantar flexes ankle, flexes knee.