Muscles of Elbow, Origin, Insertion, Nerve, Action

Muscles of elbow are classified as flexors, extensors, pronators and supinator muscles. Elbow joint is very complex joint helps in the arm movement. Elbow joint consists of different ligaments and muscles, muscles of elbow helps in extending, flexing, supinating and pronating of arm.

Muscles of Elbow

Flexors Muscles of Elbow

Biceps Brachii

Origin: Long head: Supraglenoid tubercle of scapula and glenoid labrum. Short head: Apex of coracoid process. Insertion: Posterior part of radial tuberosity, bicipital aponeurosis into deep fascia over common flexion origin. Nerve: Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6). Action: Flexes shoulder and elbow, supinate forearm.

Brachialis

Origin: Lower half of anterior surface of humerus, intermuscular septum. Insertion: Coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna. Nerve: Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6) radial nerve (C7). Action: Flexes elbow

Brachioradialis

Origin: Upper two-third of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus lateral intermuscular septum. Insertion: Lateral side of radius above styloid process. Nerve: Radial nerve (C5, C6). Action: Flexes elbow.

Pronator Teres

Origin: Humeral head—medial epicondyle via common flexor tendon, intermuscular septum, antebrachial fascia, ulnar head—medial part of coronoid process. Insertion: Middle of lateral surface of radius. Nerve: Median nerve (C6, C7). Action: Pronates forearm, flexes elbow.

Extensors Muscles of Elbow

Triceps Brachii

Origin: Long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula, shoulder capsule. Lateral head: Above and lateral to spiral groove on posterior surface of humerus. Medial head: Below and medial to spiral groove on posterior surface of humerus. Insertion: Upper surface of olecranon, deep fascia of forearm. Nerve: Radial nerve (C6, C8). Action: Extends elbow and shoulder.

Anconeus

Origin: Posterior surface of lateral epicondyle of humerus. Insertion: Lateral surface of olecranon, upper quarter of posterior surface of ulna. Nerve: Radial nerve (C6–C8). Action: Extends elbow.

Pronators of Elbow


Pronator Teres

Origin: Humeral head—medial epicondyle via common flexor tendon, intermuscular septum, antebrachial fascia, ulnar head—medial part of coronoid process. Insertion: Middle of lateral surface of radius. Nerve: Median nerve (C6, C7). Action: Pronates forearm, flexes elbow.

Pronator Quadratus

Origin: Ulna (lower quarter of anterior surface). Insertion: Radius (lower quarter of anterior surface). Nerve: Anterior interosseous branch of median nerve (C7, C8). Action: Pronates forearm.

Supinators of Elbow

Supinator

Origin: Lateral epicondyle (Inferior aspect), radial collateral ligament, annular ligament, supinator crest and fossa of ulna. Insertion: Posterior, lateral and anterior aspects of upper third of radius. Nerve: Posterior interosseous nerve (C6, C7). Action: Supinates forearm.

Biceps Brachii

Origin: Long head: Supraglenoid tubercle of scapula and glenoid labrum. Short head: Apex of coracoid process. Insertion: Posterior part of radial tuberosity, bicipital aponeurosis into deep fascia over common flexion origin. Nerve: Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6). Action: Flexes shoulder and elbow, supinate forearm.