Muscles of hip, origin, insertion, nerve and action

Hip muscles – Flexors

Psoas major

Origin: Bodies of T12 and all lumbar vertebrae, bases of transverse processes of all lumbar vertebrae, lumbar intervertebral disks.
Insertion: Lesser trochanter.
Nerve: Anterior rami of lumbar plexus (L1–L3).
Action: Flexes hip and lumbar spine.

iliacus

Origin: Iliacus fossa (superior 2/3), iliac crest
(inner lip), ala of sacrum, sacroiliac and iliolumbar ligaments.
Insertion: Blends with insertion of psoas major into
lesser trochanter.
Nerve: Femoral nerve (L2, L3).
Action: Flexes hip and trunk.

Rectus femoris

Origin: Straight head—anterior inferior iliac spine; Reflected head—area above acetabulum, capsule of hip joint.
Insertion: Base of patella, then forms part of patellar ligaments.
Nerve: Femoral nerve (L2–L4).
Action: Extends knee, flexes hip.

Sartorius

Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine and area just below.
Insertion: Upper part of medial side of tibia.
Nerve:
Femoral nerve [L2, L3].
Action:
Flexes hip and knee, laterally rotates and abducts hip, medially rotates tibia on femur.

Pectineus

Origin: Pecten pubis, iliopectineal eminence, pubic tubercle.
Insertion: Along a line from lesser trochanter to linea aspera.
Nerve: Femoral nerve (L2,3) occasionally accessory obturator (L3).
Action: Flexes and adducts hip

Hip muscles – Extensors:

Gluteus maximus

Origin: Ilium (posterior gluteal line, posterior border, adjacent part of iliac crest), aponeurosis of erector spinae, sacrum (posterior aspect) side of coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament, gluteal aponeurosis.
Insertion: Iliotibial tract of fascia lata, femur (gluteal tuberosity).
Nerve: Inferior gluteal nerve (L5–S2).
Action: Extends, laterally rotates and abducts hip.

Semitendinosus

Origin: Ischial tuberosity.
Insertion: Tibia (upper part of medial surface).
Nerve: Tibial division of sciatic nerve (L5–S2).
Action: Flexes knee, extends hip and medially rotates tibia on femur.

Semimembranosus

Origin: Ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Posterior aspect of medial tibial condyle.
Nerve: Tibial division of sciatic nerve [L5–S2].
Action: Flexes knee, extends hip and medially rotates tibia on femur

Biceps femoris

Origin: Long head: Ischial tuberosity, sacrotuberous ligament. Short head: Lower half of lateral lip of linea aspera, lateral supracondylar line of femur, lateral intramuscular septum.
Insertion: Head of fibula, lateral tibia condyle.
Nerve: Sciatic nerve (L5–S2). Long head—tibial division. Short head—common peroneal division.
Action: Flexes knee and extends hip, laterally rotates tibia on femur

Abductors of hip

Gluteus maximus

Origin: Ilium (posterior gluteal line, posterior border, adjacent part of iliac crest), aponeurosis of erector spinae, sacrum (posterior aspect) side of coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament, gluteal aponeurosis.
Insertion: Iliotibial tract of fascia lata, femur (gluteal tuberosity).
Nerve: Inferior gluteal nerve (L5–S2).
Action: Extends, laterally rotates and abducts hip.

Gluteus medius

Origin: Gluteal surface of ilium between posterior and anterior gluteal line.
Insertion: Greater trochanter (anterolateral ridge).
Nerve: Superior gluteal nerve (L4–S1).
Action: Abducts and medially rotates hip.

Gluteus minimus

Origin: Ilium (gluteal surface between anterior and inferior gluteal lines).
Insertion: Anterior lateral ridge on greater trochanter.
Nerve: Superior gluteal nerve (L4–S1).
Action: Abducts and medially rotates hip

Sartorius

Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine and area just below.
Insertion: Upper part of medial side of tibia.
Nerve: Femoral nerve [L2, L3].
Action: Flexes hip and knee, laterally rotates and abducts hip, medially rotates tibia on femur

Tensor fasciae latae

Origin: Outer lip of iliac crest between iliac tubercle and anterior superior iliac spine.
Insertion: Iliotibial tract.
Nerve: Superior gluteal nerve (L4–S1).
Action: Extends knee, abducts and medially rotates hip

Piriformis

Origin: Front of second to fourth sacral segment, gluteal surface of ilium, pelvic surface of sacrotuberous ligament.
Insertion: Medial side of greater trochanter.
Nerve: Anterior rami of sacral plexus (L5–S2).
Action: Laterally rotates and abducts hip

Hip Adductors

Adductor longus

Origin: Front of pubis.
Insertion: Middle third of linea aspera.
Nerve: Anterior division of obturator nerve (L2–L4).
Action: Adducts thigh.

Adductor magnus

Origin: Inferior ramus of pubis, conjoined ischial ramus, inferolateral aspect of ischial tuberosity.
Insertion: Linea aspera, proximal part of medial supracondylar line.
Nerve: Obturator nerve and tibial division of sciatic nerve (L2–L4).
Action: Adducts thigh.

Adductor brevis

Origin: External aspect of body and inferior ramus of pubis.
Insertion: Upper half of linea aspera.
Nerve: Obturator nerve (L2, L3).
Action: Adducts hip

Gracilis

Origin: Pubis (interior ramus and lower half of body), adjacent ischial ramus.
Insertion: Tibia (upper part of medial surface).
Nerve: Obturator nerve (L2, L3).
Action: Flexes knee, adducts hip, medially rotates tibia on femur.

Pectineus

Origin: Pecten pubis, iliopectineal eminence, pubic tubercle.
Insertion: Along a line from lesser trochanter to linea aspera.
Nerve: Femoral nerve (L2,3) occasionally accessory obturator (L3).
Action: Flexes and adducts hip

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