Neurological Tests of Human Body

ALTERNATE NOSE-TO-FINGER TEST
Procedure: Keep your finger away about an arm’s length from the patient. Ask the patients to touch your finger with his index finger and then touch his nose. Repeat the movement.
Response: Patient missing your finger or intention tremor.
Indicates: Possible cerebellar dysfunction.


FINGER-TO-NOSE TEST
Procedure: Keep the patient shoulder in 90 abduction with elbow extension. Ask the patient to touch the tip of the nose with the help of the tip of the index finger.
Response: Patient missing your finger or intention tremor.
Indicates: Possible cerebellar dysfunction.

FINGER-TO-FINGER TEST
Procedure: Keep the patient both shoulders in 90° abduction with the elbow extension. Ask the patients to bring both the hand towards the midline and approximate the index fingers from opposing hand.
Response: Patients missing your finger or intention tremor.
Indicates: Possible cerebellar dysfunction.

HEEL-SHIN TEST
Procedure: Patient lying down. Ask him to place one heel on the opposite knee and then drag the heel down or the shin towards the ankle and back again.
Response: Inability to keep the heel on the shin or uncoordinated movement or intention tremor.
Indicates: Possible cerebellar dysfunction.

ALTERNATE HEEL-TO-KNEE TEST
Procedure: With supine position, ask the patients to touch the knee and big toe alternately, with the heel of opposite extremity.
Response: Uncoordinated movement or intention tremor.
Indicates: Possible cerebellar dysfunction.

HOFFMANN REFLEX
Procedure: Flick the distal phalanx of the patient’s third or fourth finger.
Response: Reflex flexion of the patient’s thumb.
Indicates: Possible upper motor neuron lesion.

JOINT POSITION SENSE (KINESTHESIA)
Procedure: The test is generally performed at distal joint of the limb. Demonstrate the movement with patient’s eye open. Then ask the patient to close his eyes to test. Grasp the joint to be tested between two fingers and move it up and down. Ask the patient to identify the direction of movement.
Response: Inability to identify.
Indicates: Loss of proprioception.

LIGHT TOUCH
Procedure: Take a wisp of cotton wool. Demonstrate the procedure with the patient’s eye open. Then ask the patient to close his eyes. Stroke the patient’s skin with the cotton wool at random point, ask him to indicate every time they feel the touch.
Response: Inability to indicate every time.
Indicates: Altered touch sensation.

PIN-PRICK (PAIN)
Procedure: Demonstrate the procedure with patient’s eyes open. Then ask him to close his eyes. Test random areas of limb by using sharp end object and ask the patient to tell, which sensation they feel.
Response: Inability to identify the type of sensation of pain.
Indicates: Altered pain sensation.

RAPIDLY ALTERNATING MOVEMENT
Procedure: Ask the patients to hold out one hand palm up and then alternately slap it with the palmar and then dorsal aspects of the fingers of the other hand. For the lower limbs get the patient to tap first one foot on the floor and then the other.
Response: Loss of rhythm.
Indicates: Possible cerebellar dysfunction.

TEMPERATURE
Procedure: Take cold and warm water and ask the patients to distinguish between the two sensation, or a cold tuning fork is taken and ask the patient to identify the sensation, when applied to various parts of the body.
Response: Inability to differentiate the temperature.
Indicates: Altered temperature sensation.

VIBRATION SENSE
Procedure: Ask the patient to close his eyes. Put the vibrating tuning fork (128 Hz) over bony prominence or on the finger tips or toes.
Response: Unable to report the feeling of vibration.
Indicates: Altered vibration sense.

TWO-POINT DISCRIMINATION
Procedure: Demonstrate the procedure with patient’s eye open. Ask the patient to close his eyes, with either one prong or two touches the patient alternately and reduces space between two prongs.
Response: Inability to discriminate.
Indicates: Indicates sensory dysfunction

ROMBERG’S TEST
Procedure: Patient stand with feet parallel to each other with a normal width between the feet and then close eyes for 20-30 seconds.
Response: Excessive postural sway or loss of balance.
Indication: Proprioceptive or vestibular deficit.

SHARPENED ROMBERG’S TEST
Procedure: Ask the patient to stand with the feet in a tandem stance with arm folded across the chest and stand for about a minute.
Response: Excessive postural sway or loss of balance.
Indication: Proprioceptive or vestibular deficit.

Share via
Copy link
Powered by Social Snap