Prevalance of long term muscle fatigue due to standing

TITLE: Prevalance of long term muscle fatigue in young 

supermarket workers after long standing

Abstract : 

Introduction: The progressive muscle fatigue is assumed to lead to musculo-skeletal diseases, as fatigue caused by sustained mild exertion exhibits long- lasting results. However, the results have caused little attention in the lower limbs. Aims & Objectives : The aims & objectives of that study were to recognize long-term effects of fatigue in lower limbsin young supermarket workers linked with long standing activities and to see the effects of gender and age. Data Collection: Fifteen Young men and 15  young ladies from two diverse age groups did standing work for 5 hours counting 5-minutes sitting rest breaks and a 30-min lunch. The group of young population was examined in a control day. Muscle weakness was measured by electrically incited muscle jerks (muscle twitch force [MTF]), postural steadiness, and assessment of distress. Visual analogue scale [VAS] was used to measure pain. Statistical Analysis: The information and statistics will be examined with the help of IBM Statstcal Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version16.

Keywords: Causes of muscle fatigue, Long term muscle fatigue , Muscle twitch force , Local muscle fatigue , Fatigue ,  Gender , Postural stability , Discomfort, Muscle soreness , Muscle pain , Muscle tenderness , Muscle spasm

Introduction:

Muscle fatigue is a symptom that declines the muscles’ capacity to perform over time. It can be linked with a state of weariness and exhaustion often caused due to strenuous and demanding activities or exercise. Today, World population count is about 6.9 billion. Out of this, 3.1 billion population counts for industrial workers. The workers in industrial sectors have to operate heavy equipments. For ease of approach standing is a practical position to steer heavy equipments, though in long run this position causes occupational injuries. Most of the population complains long term fatigue with low back pain, lower leg pain and venous disorders. The industrial workers have to perform their job in standing for more than 50% of their shift. Which leads to increased medical cost and decreased productivity and wages. If the worker is not able to recover in a short duration then employer needs to replace him and incur further costs in order to train and search for the new worker. 

Prolonged standing can be defined as standing more than one hour without moving from the workstation and standing more than four hours a day. In this way long term muscle fatigue due to standing effects economy, productivity rate and medical costs. Prolonged standing can cause muscle fatigue and discomfort especially seen in lower extremities.  This discomfort leads to decreased mental concentration and alertness. Concurrently this study performed analysis on muscles involved in standing. Major muscles involved in standing are hamstrings, quadriceps, gluteus, gastrocnemius, soleus, anterior and posterior tibialis, piriformis, peroneals and other core muscles.  

The cause behind increased musculoskeletal complaints during long standing activities induces muscle fatigue because of restriction in movememt due to their work conditions and continuous static activity. It results in decreased blood flow, and then leads to muscle fatigue and exhaustion. Ultimately causing pathophysiological remodelling. which leads to chronic venous insufficiency, varicose veins and pro-inflammatory responses. In our legs we have two levels of fats. The superficial layer and a deep fat layer. The deep fat layer is the one which shrinks first when we perform exercise. Hamstrings which form back of the thigh, helps in flexion of knee and extension of hip.

Quadriceps are the muscles present at the front of thigh, consists of four sections, and helps in extension of knees. Tibialis anterior is the muscle that make up your shin and helps in flexing ankle to move foot towards knees. Calf muscles consist of gastrocnemius and soleus. Tibialis posterior is a small muscle present beneath calf muscle and helps in stabilizing your foot. Gluteus maximus and medius are situated superficially and perform its function to extend thigh at hip. Gluteus maximus structures the buttocks.

Gluteus medius is fan shaped muscle and perform same function to gluteus minimus, it rotates the thigh and fix pelvis while walking. The lateral rotator group of muscles are located deeply. Lateral rotators include piriformis, obturator internus, gemelli and quadratus femoris. Rotators are involved in lateral rotation and abduction at hip. Other muscles involved in movement at the level of hip joint are psoas major which helps in flexion of thigh, iliacus is a large fan shaped muscle which lines pelvis interiorly, sartorius is thin and longest muscle in body which helps in flexion and rotation of thigh at hip joint, Pectineus muscle is a large flat muscle that helps in flexion and adduction at thigh. The popliteus muscle located in lower leg is responsible for unlocking knee joint after extension.

Biceps femoris that originates from pelvis and femur and attaches to fibula. This muscle plays its role in flexion of lower leg at knee. Posture is a composite of the positions of all the joints of body at any given moment.  (Kendall, McCreary, & Provance,1993,p.71)

To judge how well a posture maintains stability, we will analyze the body’s alignment with regard to gravity line. In closed chain postures like standing, changes in one joints alignment often require changes at other joints. According to the CCOHS report, prolonged standing effectively reduces the blood supply to the muscles resulting in the acceleration of the onset of fatigue, and causes pain.

Rationale of the study:

The ratonale of this study is to determine the effect of long standing on long term muscle fatigue in young supermarket workers. 

Aims & Objectives :

The aims & objectives of that study were to recognize long-term effects of fatigue in lower limbsin young supermarket workers linked with long standing activities and to see the effects of gender and age.

Hypothesis

• Null Hypothesis

There is no effect of long standing on muscle fatigue in young workers.

• Alternative Hypothesis

There is effect of long standing on muscle fatigue in young workers.

Material and methodology:

STUDY DESIGN:

Cross-Sectonal Study

SAMPLE SIZE:

30-40

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:

Convenient Sampling

DURATION:

4  weeks

SETTING:

SuperMarkets of Faisalabad

SELECTION CRITERIA:

1. Inclusion Criteria:

  • Subject should be young , age between 18-26
  • Subject should be worked in supermarket
  • Subject  duty to perform job in standing.

2. Exclusion Criteria:

• Not perform job in sitting

       Data Collection Tools:

The tools will be used in the current study to collect the data.

•  Tool : A self-modifed screening questonnaire

    Data Measurement Tool:

  •  Visual Analog Scale (VAS)
  • Muscle twitch force (MTF)

Data Collection Procedure:

Fifteen Young men and 15  young ladies from two diverse age groups did standing work for 5 hours counting 5-minutes sitting rest breaks and a 30-min lunch. The group of young population was examined in a control day. Muscle weakness was measured by electrically incited muscle jerks (muscle twitch force [MTF]), postural steadiness, and assessment of distress. Visual analogue scale [VAS] was used to measure pain.