Diabetes type 2: causes, symptoms, risk factors

If you are curious about that: what is diabetes type 2? how you get it? and how it is treated or can be prevented? what are the causes and symptoms?

What is diabetes type 2?

It is a pathological condition of your body. Your body is insulin resistant as a result increased blood glucose level. It is non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM. Because even if the normal amount of insulin is produced by islets cells/ beta cells of pancreas, your body is resistant to it. Insulin is a hormone which metabolize the glucose molecules by catalysis. Break down of glucose produces energy. Now, there is no use of insulin, its function is diminished. As a result, hyperglycemia results which is high blood sugar level. If it is at permanent stage, it is called diabetes. NIDDM is also considered as a group of many metabolic syndromes.

what is difference between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes?

in type 1 diabetes due to lack or low insulin level in body is present. insulin producing beta cells of pancreas is destroyed by mistaken auto immune reaction. type 1 diabetes is called insulin dependent. but on the other hand there is normal insulin level in body but body is resistant to insulin resulting in high blood glucose level.

What are the causes of diabetes type 2?

Causes of NIDDM discussed below

Diabetes type 2 results due to high glucose level which is carbohydrate or sugar. High blood glucose is due to insulin resistance. The reason of insulin resistance is still unknown. Following the reason of insulin resistance:

  1. environmental factors
  2. physically in active
  3. being overweight
  4. genetics
  5. inability of pancreas beta cells to produce insulin(long term diabetes type 1)
  6. metabolic syndrome
  7. high glucose from liver by abnormal break down of higher molecules i.e. carbohydrates, fatty acids etc.

What are the symptoms of diabetes type 2?

  • there are almost similar diabetes type 1 symptoms in diabetes type 2 i.e.
  • excessive thirst
  • blurry vision
  • fatigue
  • feeling hungry
  • weight loss
  • frequent urination
  • frequent infections
  • dry skin

    But there are some unique symptoms which distinguish type 2 diabetes from 1. If even a small scratch take a lot of time for healing than this is the sign of NIDDM. If you are feeling numbness and tingling in your fingers this is another sign. In NIDDM there is no ketone in urine which is the sign of type 1 diabetes.

Risk factors

You are at vey high risk factor if you are older than 45 years. If you have a diabetic siblings than genetically you are susceptible to it.

If you have that medical conditions that you are pre diabetic of type 1 than you are at risk factor. Other wise if you have cardio vascular diseases like high blood pressure, heart and blood vessel diseases, high HDL cholesterol, high triglyceride and other metabolic disorders than you have high chance of getting it. If you have stress or depression you are susceptible to it.

Physical and environmental conditions can also put you at risk of it which are: being obese, little or no exercise, sleeping too much or too little.

Race and ethnicity is an other risk factor of NIDDM.

diabetes type 2

complications caused by diabetes type 2

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

You are at 5 times more risk of getting cardiovascular diseases. It damages blood vessels, called arteriosclerosis. Chest pain or angina or even heart attack can occur. it can also lead to stroke.

KIDNEY

When there is abnormally high level of glucose in blood than kidney has a lot of work load. therefore kidney function is damaged. This can even lead to dialysis or kidney transplant.

SLEEP

It is the cause of apnea. Apnea is sleep problem in which oxygen problem occurs during sleep.

DEPRESSION

Its chance is 2 times when you have NIDDM.

Diagnosis and treatment

DIAGNOSIS

NIDDM is diagnosed when there is high blood glucose continuously for 2 months.

following tests are use for diagnosis:

  1. glycated hemoglobin A1C test
  2. random glucose sugar test
  3. fasting blood sugar test
  4. oral glucose tolerance test

TREATMENT

there is no treatment of diabetes. it can only be managed. so management ways are:

  1. weight loss
  2. healthy eating
  3. regular exercise
  4. diabetes medication which is insulin therapy
  5. regular blood sugar monitoring

WEIGHT LOSS

weight loss or weight management can lower down your blood sugar ideally.so you should more carefully monitor your BMI. daily exercise and walk is highly recommended.

HEALTHY EATING

Green vegetables and fruits are highly recommended. Moreover try to avoid high calories food, high carbohydrate food, highly saturated food and rich in fatty acids. fiber food should consume more.

REGULAR EXCERCISE

daily 30 to 35 minutes of aerobic exercise can ideally control your blood sugar. even if you are not diabetic, this exercise is beneficial for all and prevent many diseases. daily morning or evening walk is also a very great hobby which a diabetic patient should strictly follow.

REGULAR MEDICATION

even if there is no permanent cure of diabetes you have to follow restrictions till death. strict medication treatment is recommended. insulin medication help to carry glucose metabolism in body and lowers blood sugar level. by doing this treatment further many life threatening diseases can be prevented.

REGULAR SUGAR MONITORING

regular sugar monitoring is very crucial factor for a diabetic patient. by monitoring blood sugar level you are able to have an idea about the advantage of your treatment on regular basis. if one treatment does not work for you, you can switch to another one.

a complicated case can appear when you are mistakenly diagnosed for diabetes type 2 but actually you have diabetes type 1. this is very complex case. to prevent or nullify that mistake you should regularly check your medication effect on your blood sugar level.

Prevention of diabetes type 2

Healthy lifestyle habits can prevent the risk by:

  • eating healthy foods
  • getting active
  • loosing weight
  • avoiding being sedentary

sometimes you can even take medication to prevent the risk of diabetes type 2. you can take oral medication to prevent it. but along with the medications you have to strictly follow healthy lifestyle to prevent it.

regards

Dr. ANIFA YOUSAF

reference sites

  1. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20351193#:~:text=Type%202%20diabetes%20develops%20when,seem%20to%20be%20contributing%20factors.
  2. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351199
  3. https://www.webmd.com/diabetes/type-2-diabetes

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