Vaccination, Are you afraid of the side effects of vaccine?

What is vaccination?

Vaccine is a biological preparation of substance to stimulate production of antibodies against particular infectious disease vaccine and the process of getting vaccine is termed as vaccination typically vaccination contains an agent which resembles disease causing microbes which is often obtained from weakened or killed microbes or its toxins or surface proteins.

Immunization & vaccination:

vaccination


Vaccination schedule for babies:

At Birth:  

BCG 0.05ml Intradermal on right upper arm OPV 2 drops Oral Hepatitis-B 0.5 ml Intramuscular injection on anterolateral side of left thigh.


6 weeks: 

Pentavalent–I  0.5 ml 
Intramuscular injection on anterolateral side of right thigh 
Pneumococcal – I 0.5 ml 
Intramuscular injection on anterolateral side of left thigh OPV-I 2 drops Oral 


10 weeks:

 Pentavalent–II 0.5 ml 
Intramuscular injection on anterolateral side of right thigh 
Pneumococcal – II 0.5 ml 
Intramuscular injection on anterolateral side of left thigh OPV-II 2 drops Oral 


14 weeks:

Pentavalent–III 0.5 ml 
Intramuscular injection on anterolateral side of right thigh 
Pneumococcal- III 0.5 ml 
Intramuscular injection on anterolateral side of left thigh OPV-III 2 drops Oral 
IPV 0.5 ml 
Intramuscular injection on anterolateral side of right thigh at least one inch apart from the site of Penta injection 


9 months:

 Measles-I 0.5 ml Subcutaneous injection on left upper arm 


15 months:

 Measles-II 0.5 ml 

What is EPI?

Expanded program on immunization was launched in Pakistan in 1978 to protect children by immunizing them against the potentially harmful diseases like childhood tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus & measles. Later with the support of development partners a number of new vaccines were launched including hepatitis B, haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) & Pneumococcal vaccine (PCV10) were introduced in 2002, 2009,2012 respectively.

Types of vaccines:

Bacterial vaccine:

Bacillus calmette guerin vaccine which contains attenuated mycobacterium bovis, Pertussis vaccine which contains killed pertussis bacteria, & Hib vaccine which contain PRP-CRM conjugate from haemophilus influenza bacteria & Pneumococcal vaccine.

Toxoid vaccine:

This vaccine is used against diphtheria and tetanus.

Age related Vaccines:

1 to 2 Months:

Protect your baby by providing early life immunity starting from 1 to 2 months of life baby receives vaccine to develop immunity against potentially harmful diseases:

  • Hepatitis B (2nd dose)
  • Diphtheria, tetanus (DTaP)
  • Haemophilus influenza type b (hIB)
  • Polio (IPV)
  • Pneumococcal (PCV)
  • Rotavirus (RV)

4 Months:

Protect your baby by providing early life immunity by following the recommended vaccines schedule at the age of 4 months baby receives following vaccines:

  • Hepatitis B (2nd dose)
  • Diphtheria, tetanus (DTaP)
  • Haemophilus influenza type b (HIB)
  • Polio (IPV)
  • Pneumococcal (PCV)
  • Rotavirus (RV)

6 Months:

Protect your baby by providing early life immunity by following the recommended vaccines schedule to fight against potentially harmful diseases:

  • Diphtheria, tetanus (DTaP)
  • Haemophilus influenza type b (HIB)
  • Polio (IPV)
  • Pneumococcal (PCV)
  • Rotavirus (RV)

7 to 11 Months:

There are usually no vaccinations scheduled between 7 to 11 months of age, if your baby has missed an earlier vaccination its time to catch up.

  • Flu vaccination

Flu vaccination should be administered to the children above 6 months of age in every flu season.

12 to 23 months:

By following recommended schedule of vaccination your child would be protected against 14 vaccine preventable diseases.,

  • Flu vaccination

4 to 6 years:

Between 4 to 6 years of age  your child should visit doctor for complete check up once in years.

  • Diphtheria, tetanus (DTaP)
  • Polio (IPV)
  • Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)
  • Chickenpox (varicella)
  • Influenza  (flu)

7 to 10 years:

Between 7 to 10 years of age your child should visit doctor for complete check up once in years.

  • Flu vaccination

11 to 12 years:

There are four vaccines recommended for preteens which helps them protect:

  • Meningococcal conjugate vaccine
  • HPV vaccine
  • TDAP
  • Flu vaccine 

Vaccination for Adults:

13 to 18 years:

Between 13 & 18 years of age your child should visit doctor for complete check up once in years. It is the best time to get any vaccines that teen have missed.

  • Flu vaccination

19 to 26 years:

Between 19 and 26 years of age one should go through following vaccines:

  • Seasonal flu (influenza)
  • Td or TDAP vaccine
  • HPV vaccine
  • Meningitis

27 to 60 years:

An adult should go through following vaccines if missed during childhood or as an adolescent:

  • Seasonal flu (influenza)
  • TDAP vaccine
  • Td (Tetanus, diphtheria)
  • Booster shot
  • Zoster vaccine

60 Years or Older:

People between age of 60 years to older should get following vaccines:

  • Seasonal flu (Influenza)
  • Td or Tdap vaccine
  • Pneumococcal vaccine
  • Zoster vaccine

Interval between multiple doses of same antigen:

  • Vaccines which require administration of more than one dose an interval of at least one week should be ensured between two doses of same vaccine.
  • Any dose given before recommended age or interval shall be considered INVALID and should be repeated as recommended.
  • Any dose missed on scheduled date should be given on next occasion along with other due vaccines.

Conditions for vaccination:

Immunizations are considered safe & can be given in following conditions:

  • Minor illnesses such as upper respiratory tract
  • allergy, asthma
  • Pre maturity
  • Malnutrition
  • Dermatitis
  • Stable neurological conditions
  • jaundice history soon after birth
  • Eczema

EPI service provider:

The accredited EPI service providers are:

  • Vaccinators
  • Nurses
  • Dispensers
  • Lady health visitors
  • Medical technicians
  • Medical doctors

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